Our applications have included
Arsenic is found widely in the earth’s crust, and therefore in groundwater, in many parts of the world. For effective arsenic water treatment, there are a number of factors related to the properties of the treated water, so pilot testing for the particular application is typically required for design of an arsenic removal system.
Uranium is a another naturally occurring radionuclide that is present in varying amounts in rocks and soils in the earth’s crust, but can also contaminate water as a result of industrial activities. As with radium, it is typically best to perform a pilot study to identify the optimum treatment process.
Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas formed from the breakdown of uranium in soil/rock. High levels of radon can enter groundwater flowing through granite or granitic sand and gravel formations. Radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer in the US. As a gas, radon treatment can involve aeration/stripping or the use of a radon filtration system.
Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive element (radionuclide) that is present in varying amounts in rocks and soils in the earth’s crust. It can be an issue for deep bedrock aquifers. The optimum treatment technology for radium contamination depends on the water properties, and it is typically recommended to perform a pilot study to identify the optimum treatment process.
Color is related to colloidal suspensions in the water, primarily related to contaminants of vegetable origin. As such, color is typically more of an issue with surface water rather than groundwater (though shallow wells can have coloring issues). To remove color from water, WETS has typically employed coagulation, settling and filtration techniques.
The trihalomethanes (THM) are by-products of the chlorine disinfection of water, where the chlorine reacts with organic and inorganic matter in the water. As such, effective THM removal from water requires a proper review of the processing system to determine the most effective means of reducing formation and/or removal of THM’s.
Hydrogen sulfide is a highly toxic and flammable gas, but its presence in drinking water is not at a concentration to pose a health threat, and its presence is easily detectable by odor by most people. Because of its rotten egg odor, hydrogen sulfide is removed from water for aesthetic reasons. As a dissolved gas, hydrogen sulfide can be removed by aeration, but this processing is very pH sensitive, and other additional treating may be required.
PFAS is a reference to a class of poly and perfluoroalkyl substances. The most commonly found and the most studied are perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). Starting in the 1940’s, PFAS have been manufactured and used by a variety of industries. The EPA has recently made a final classification of PFOA and PFOS as primary drinking water contaminants, and is in the process of drawing up a set of regulations. Effective technologies for PFAS removal include activated carbon treatment, ion exchange resins, and high-pressure membranes such as nanofiltration or reverse osmosis.
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